Migratiegids voor e-mail van lokaal naar cloud

Migratiegids voor e-mail van lokaal naar cloud

On-Premises to Cloud E-mail Migration Guide

Jun 28, 2020

Gepubliceerd door

Gepubliceerd door








Ready to see Bird
in action?

Ready to see Bird
in action?

Migratiegids voor e-mail van lokaal naar cloud

We horen zo vaak de vraag: "Hebben jullie een soort draaiboek waarin het proces voor het migreren van een on-premises installatie naar Birdstaat beschreven?

Waarom ja, ja dat doen we. Lees verder.

First, some back story. De Bird Cloud service was created in 2014 out of the enormous success of the On-Premises Momentum MTA solution. Momentum sits aan de core of the Bird Cloud, providing high-speed delivery and traffic shaping for thousands of customers on the cloud service. Because of this, Momentum receives a large portion of our engineering attention, but the results of that work are often buried in performance improvements that don’t get a great deal of press.  Momentum customers see the benefits of this work every time a new public release of Momentum is published.

This does NOT mean that Bird is just “Momentum in the Cloud”. MessageBird is much more than that and can have added benefits for customers who choose to migrate or use them in a hybrid approach.  In addition, we have made it very easy for PowerMTA customers to migrate or use PowerMTA with Bird in a hybrid configuration as well. De rest of this document will describe in detail how you can migrate your message streams from Momentum or PowerMTA naar de Bird Cloud service. 

Thier are really two separate scenarios to consider when migrating to Bird from Momentum or PowerMTA. 

  1.  You are ready to leave the on-premises world entirely, shut down your physical data centers and no longer manage any on-premises MTA directly.  This means eliminating Momentum or PowerMTA from your deployment and sending messages directly to SparkPost for message handling. Or

  2. You have reason to keep some on-premises footprint for one reason or another.  Some possibilities might be:

  • specifieke afleverstromen die voorbewerking vereisen in Momentum

  • opsplitsen van capaciteit voor noodsituaties of herstel na rampen

  • het ondersteunen van bestaande klanten in PMTA terwijl nieuwe klanten naar SparkPost worden verschoven

 …then you want to forward the other messages on to Bird for onward message handling.  

In either situation, you need to be aware that Bird will only accept SMTP messages for delivery that are injected over port 587 or 2525 and use SMTP_Auth with a specific username and password (Zie SMTP-documenten hier). We also highly recommend connecting with a TLS connection, but that is not strictly required. If you are replacing your MTA layer entirely (scenario 1), then you may also want to consider using the Transmissions REST API which can accept messages over HTTPS connections. Documentatie on that API is hier.

Welke optie kies ik?

Om erachter te komen of je onder optie #1 of optie #2 valt, moet je deze factoren in overweging nemen:

  • Gebruik je Momentum's Lua scripting engine voor iets ingewikkelder dan het routeren van berichten?

    • Lua is a comprehensive script tool for manipulating messages in-line, but the vast majority of our users only use it to select a binding for delivery.  If that is the case, you can modify your generation code to add an kenmerk ip_pool naar de X-MSYS-API header and have Bird assign the route for you. 

    • Als je Lua gebruikt om meer gecompliceerde dingen te doen, zoals body filtering, Mail_From herschrijven of bericht cadans berekeningen, en het is niet haalbaar om die logica te verplaatsen naar je injecterende applicatie, dan kun je overwegen om over te stappen naar het Optie #2 kamp.

  • Kan je generatiesysteem berichten versturen over poort 587 met TLS en SMTP_Auth?

    • Sommige campagnemanagementsystemen kunnen mail alleen in cleartext naar buiten pushen op poort 25. Dit veroorzaakt een beveiligingsprobleem voor . Dit veroorzaakt een beveiligingsprobleem voor Bird , dus je kunt optie #2 overwegen.

  • Gebruik je PowerMTA substitutiesyntaxis of een andere in-line berichtaanpassing?

    • If you can move this function up into your generators or use the Bird Sjabloon Taal, then you can still use option 1, but otherwise, you may need to think about keeping a PMTA node online for this message modification before shipping to Bird for delivery.

  • Do you require any inbound AV/AS scanning before injection? While this is possible in Momentum and PowerMTA, eBird assumes you have already performed all those checks.  You may want to consider doing that before injection.

No matter which way you go, it is sure to affect your commercial relationship.  As you can imagine, this is not our first rodeo. Be sure to loop in your Commercial Account Manager and Customer Success Manager so we can help you through the details and make sure you are getting the best value for your dollar.

Voor optie #1 Camp (Afkicken):

Let’s assume you are OK with option 1 and you are ready to shut down your on-premises MTAs and you have decided to continue using the SMTP injection method, not changing your message creation systems at all.  Your generation systems should create a fully formatted SMTP message, then push to Bird over TLS using SMTP_AUTH where the username and password are as described on deze pagina. Remember that the “password” is the API key you generate in your Bird account with the SMTP delivery option turned on.

If you are in the Option #1 camp, consider switching to the REST API right out of your generation system. In most cases, we find that customers’ processing systems are already using JSON over HTTP and have to convert to SMTP before injection. You can skip that step and send it directly to us as een JSON geformatteerde REST payload.

If you choose to inject with the REST API, you may need to alter your content creation system a bit, but it may be worth it.  Hier vindt u meer informatie.

One of the biggest concerns large ESPs have with a Migration is IP Warming. Typically they have spent many years grooming their inventory of IP addresses with great care so the thought of abandoning all that work is painful. Bird has worked out a Bring Your Own IP (BYOIP) process that takes care of that issue. If you have at least one contiguous /24 CIDR block, Bird can use those existing IPs for delivery which saves you the pain of having to warm them up again. If you are able to take advantage of that option, you can skip the section here on IP warmup.

Als je denkt dat je hier klaar voor bent, ga dan verder naar "Het laten gebeuren".

Optie #2 (on-premise pre-processing) benutten:

Als je echter bij teamoptie #2 hoort, dan zul je een aantal configuratiewijzigingen moeten toevoegen aan je implementatie. De minst pijnlijke manier om een aantal geselecteerde berichtstromen te migreren van Momentum of PMTA naar Bird terwijl je nog steeds SMTP injectie gebruikt van je generatie systemen is om een speciale route toe te voegen in je configuratie.

Voor Momentum:

  1. Set up a version of Momentum > 3.6.23. 

  2. Install a valid SSL Certificate and open outbound port 587 so Momentum can talk to Bird Configure an outbound domain so you can route a message through Momentum to Bird. 

  3. With the configuration below, any message hitting this configuration will be routed to smtp.sparkpostmail.com using port 587 and SMTP_Auth with the username and password defined there.outbound_smtp_auth { } Keep_Message_Dicts_In_Memory = true Domain "smtp.sparkpostmail.com" {   Remote_SMTP_Port = "587"   Outbound_SMTP_AUTH_Type = "LOGIN"   Outbound_SMTP_AUTH_user = "SMTP_Injection"   Outbound_SMTP_AUTH_pass = "17258redacted8bd6cd7a8redacted8c22bce" }

  4. Configure the bindings you want to relay through MessageBird with TLS and gateway them to the domain you defined above.

    Let op:
    TLS is not strictly required but is a strong recommendation. If TLS is not possible for some reason, then IP whitelisting the API keys is also a strong recommendation.

    binding “CustomerA-Outbound” {   Gateway = "smtp-demo.sparkpostelite.com"     TLS = "required"     TLS_Certificate = "/etc/pki/tls/certs/trymsys.net.crt"     TLS_Key = "/etc/pki/tls/certs/trymsys.net.key"     TLS_Ciphers = "DEFAULT" }

Voor PowerMTA:

  1. Set up a version of PowerMTA > 4.5.0

  2. Installeer een geldig SSL-certificaat en open uitgaande poort 587 zodat PowerMTA kan praten met Bird.

  3. Configure an outbound domain path so you can route a message through PowerMTA to Bird. With the configuration below, any message hitting this configuration will be routed to smtp.sparkpostmail.com using port 587 and SMTP_Auth with the username and password defined there.  In PowerMTA, this is also where you can set TLS. Merk op dat dit ook uitgebreider is gedocumenteerd here 

<domain sparkpost.rollup>    use-unencrypted-plain-auth yes    auth-username SMTP_Injection    auth-password YourAPIKeygoesherewhenyougenerateit    route smtp.sparkpostmail.com:587    use-starttls yes    require-starttls yes    max-smtp-out 10 </domain>

4. Configureer de VMTA's die je wilt doorgeven via Bird met de {sparkpost} rollup config die je hierboven hebt gedefinieerd.

<virtual-mta SparkPostRelay>     <domain *>         queue-to {sparkpost}     </domain> </virtual-mta>

Once you have those configuration changes made, any messages sent to the selected “binding” or “VMTA” should be routed automatically through Bird for delivery.  

Het laten gebeuren

When you start down this road, don’t make the mistake of thinking this is an overnight operation.  Doing this right will take some time and care.  

  1. Setup your Bird account and fully test using a development subaccount so you can filter out that traffic later.  You will need to do this for either option because you will need the API key for the SMTP_Auth password either way.

  2. If you are using SMTP injection, plan to add an X-MSYS-API header to incorporate all the metadata and message attributes needed.  Any X-Headers should be re-written as metadata and you should include the ip_pool and campaign attributes as well. A sample is available here

  3. If you are NOT using BYOIP, then you should make sure you set up slightly different sending domains for use with MessageBird so that you can run both environments in parallel for as long as it is needed.  If your current sending domain is mijnbedrijf.nl, maybe set up sp.mycompany.com specifically for Bird delivery.  This allows you to migrate slowly and carefully while not compromising either domain.

  4. Make sure you have full domain alignment and security features enabled.  In DNS, set up DKIM, SPF, DMARC, bounce and tracking domains so they all look like they belong to the same organization.

  5. Configure Automatische IP-opwarming on your defined IP_Pools.  If you are using the previously mentioned BYOIP option, you can ignore the warmup step.

  6. Start with one message stream and move forward from there.  Just like IP Warmup, you don’t want to do this all at once. Redirect a few hundred messages first, then 10% of the volume, then 20% the following day and increase until you have moved all the volume over. If you are an ESP, select a customer you can work with and test the process with their feedback.  If it all works well, move on to the next one. If you run into problems, take the time to fix it and work it into the process for the next one.

  7. Automate as much as possible with API's.  Outside of the DNS changes, the SparkPost config can be mostly automated with een paar API-aanroepen.

Gegevensverzameling van Bird

MessageBird reports message delivery in a webhooks feed or in the message events API.  Accessing Bird plain text logs is just not possible. You can pull this data back to your environment with a webhooks collector or by calling the Gebeurtenissen API periodically and consuming the data.  We recommend using webhooks and have enkele aanbevelingen on doing that right.  In its most basic form, a PHP webhook collector can be deployed in a few  lines of code:

<?php $verb = $_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'];   if ($verb == "POST") {     $jsonStr = file_get_contents("php://input");     http_response_code(200);     $rnum = rand(1000,9999);     $t = date("YmdHis") . $rnum;     $Jfile = './data/data_'.$t.'.txt';     if (file_exists($Jfile)) {        $fn = basename($Jfile,".txt");       $seq = 0;       $ftail = substr($fn,-2,1);       if ($ftail == "-"){         $seq = substr($fn,-1);       }       $seq++;       $Jfile = basename($Jfile,".txt")."-".$seq.".txt";     }       $fh = fopen($Jfile, "w") or die("Unable to create file!");       fwrite($fh, $jsonStr);       fclose($fh);   } ?>

While you are experimenting, you can try them out with free collectors such as http://webhook.site/.

Once you have collected all the webhook data, you can read that into a data store for additional processing.  There are also ways to push Webhooks through services like StitchData and Segment.

The same information is available in the Events API if you have a need to PULL the data and cannot accept PUSH data.  Here is a sample Event API call:
GET https://api.sparkpost.com/api/v1/events/message?/


That API is fully documented with samples here:  https://developers.sparkpost.com/api/events/#events-get-search-for-message-events

If you really need the event data back in a form that looks like PMTA or Momentum logging, that is possible as well if you employ some additional conditioning code. The great news is there are enkele voorbeelden to steal from already.


  1. Make sure you talk to your Sales and Success Management team.  We’ve done this before and can help you through it quickly and cost-effectively.

  2. Figure out if you are in Camp #1 (in staat om volledig over te stappen van On-Prem) or Camp #2 (Nog steeds on-prem MTA nodig).

  3. Sign up for a gratis testaccount to evaluate the integration details.

  4. Decide on SMTP or REST API injection methods.

  5. Als je SMTP-injectie gebruikt, zoek dan uit hoe je headergegevens en berichtattributen in een X-MSYS-API header krijgt.

  6. Confirm if you can use our BYOIP process.

  7. Werk indien nodig je DNS bij met nieuwe domeinen.

  8. Build a small sample to test your migration.  You may need to adjust your config.

  9. Voer het volume op totdat al het verkeer is gemigreerd

  10. Als je in kamp #1 past, kun je eindelijk je on-prem MTA's afsluiten nadat al het verkeer is gemigreerd.

Your new standard in Marketing, Pay & Sales. It's Bird

The right message -> to the right person -> aan de right time.

Your new standard in Marketing, Pay & Sales. It's Bird

The right message -> to the right person -> at the right time.